Maitreya Maharishi continued, “Brahma created Purāṇās and Itihāsas, which are also known as the fifth Veda, from all his faces put together. Then from his eastern face he created the sacrificial ritual (yāga) known as śodaśiukta. From his southern face, the yāgas Agniśṭoma and Āgniścayana emerged. From his western face Atirātra yaga and Āptoryāma yāgas emerged. From his northern face Gosava and Vājpeya yāgas manifested.
Thereafter in the same order he created the four legs of righteousness (dharma) viz., knowledge (vidya), charity (dāna), penance (tapas) and truthfulness (satya) from his 4 faces. He created the four stages of life viz., Brahmacharya, grihasta, vānaprasta and sanyasa along with their corresponding duties.
The duties pertaining to Brahmacharya (celibate) stage of life are as follows:
After the completion of the sacred thread ceremony, the boy should perform Sāvitram Vrata for 3 days. For a period of a year thereafter he should abide by the Prājapatya vrata. Until the completion of his Vedic studies he should undertake the Brahma vrata and throughout his life he should undertake the Brihat vrata. These four duties pertain to the Brahmacharya stage of life.
The rules pertaining to Grihasta (householder) stage of life are:
Vārta, sancaya, śālīna and śilonca are the four duties that should be adhered. Agriculture and other activities pertaining to earning livelihood are known as Vārta. The tools and methodologies connected to the Yagna, yāga and other rituals and earning livelihood through storage of grains etc. is known as Sancaya. Surviving without begging or seeking anything from any other being is known as śālina. Picking the grains that would have fallen to the ground during harvest and collecting the waste grains that have fallen to the ground in granaries or warehouses and surviving purely on such grains is known as śīlonca.
The rules pertaining to vānaprastha stage of life are:
Vaikhānasa, vālakhilya, audumbarah and phenapah are the classifications with the vānaprasthas. Vaikhānasas are those who consume the food that grows on uncultivated lands. Vālakhilyas give away the old stock of foodgrains as soon as they get the newer supplies. Those who obtain their foodgrains only from that direction which they face when they wake up in the morning and remain content with it are known as Audumbaras. Those who live only on fruits that have fallen on their own are known as Phenapah.
The rules pertaining to sanyasa (renunciate) stage of life are:
Kuṭicaka, bahudaka, hamsa and paramahamsa are the four classifications within this. He who lives in a fixed place and who diligently follows the renunciate rules laid down is Kuṭicaka. He performs actions only as much as needed and focuses exclusively on the path of knowledge is known as bahudaka. He who is totally dedicated towards acquiring supreme knowledge is known as hamsa. A highly knowledgeable being is known as paramahamsa.
Previously, from the eastern face of Brahma emerged the knowledge that leads towards liberation i.e. Self-knowledge known as Anvīkshiki Vidya. From the southern face emerged the Trayī vidya, which explains about actions and the resultant fruits including the fruits of heaven. From his western face the knowledge called Vārta which is the knowledge of agriculture and trading. From his northern face the knowledge of kingly administration manifested.
The mystical invocations known as Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah also emerged. The Pranava or OM-kara manifested from the heart-space of Lord Brahma. From the hairs on his body the Ushnik chandas (vedic meter), from his skin the Gayatri chandas, from his muscles the trishṭup chandas and from his nerves anusṭhup chandas emerged.
From his bones Jagati chandas, from his bone-marrow Pankti chandas and from his life-force (prana) Brhati chandas manifested. His soul transformed into the vowels (swara) and body into consonants (vyanjana) of the alphabets.
The alphabets śa, ṣa, sa, ha which are known as ūśma varna transformed into his indriyas (10 senses). Ya, ra, la, va which are known as antastha varna became his strength (balam). From his pleasurable activities emerged the seven notes of music i.e. shadja, rishabha, gandhara, madhyama, panchama, dhaivata and nishada.
This Lord is both manifest and unmanifest form of the sound. Sound passes through four different stages of transformation. He is the sound that has manifests externally in the form of the vaikhari. This is the audible sound. In his unmanifested form he is the stages of Para, Pasyanti and Madhyama vak (the inner transformations which precede the external audible manifestation). Lord Brahma however is beyond manifested and unmanifested sound.
Through his innumerable energies he manifests in innumerable forms. Seated in the intellect he illumines in the form of the universe.
After creating sound Brahma discarded the earlier body which had lustful desires and accepted another body. He now firmly decided to expand the creation. Although Marichi and his other sons were supremely capable, they did not help in expanding the creation. Brahma realized this.
He thought within himself, “Aha! What a wonder! I have been trying endlessly to create and expand this creation. Even then this creation does not multiply. Destiny does not favour me. This is a fact. It is undoubtedly true.”
He now prayed to the Lord to shower His benevolent grace upon him. At that time his body split into two. Simultaneously a male and a female form emerged from him. ‘Ka’ is the symbolic representation for Lord Brahma. As these two forms emerged from his body, they are jointly known as ‘Kāyam’.
The man was Swāyambhuva Manu. He became the emperor of the entire universe. The woman was Shatarupa. She was the wife of Swayambhuva Manu. From then on, through this husband-wife relationship the population has been expanding.
The couple Swāyambhuva Manu and Shatarupa had five children. Priyavrata and Uttānapada were his sons. Ākuti, Devahuti and Prasuti were his daughters. Swāyambhuva Manu offered his daughter ākuti to Maharishi Ruci Prajapati in marriage. Devahuti was given in marriage to Kardama Prajāpati and Prasuti was given to Daksha Prajapati.
Through the offspring born to these holy couples, population increased in this creation.
With this the twelfth chapter of the third canto comes to an end.